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2015 1E1 Group 8 - Anaemia

Page history last edited by class1e1group8 8 years, 7 months ago

Team member

Names / Roles:


  • []  Afrah Luthfiyah Bte Rosley (Leader)
  • []  Allyster Faith, Belle Yow  (Editor)
  • [] Koh Xin Yun     (Researcher)
  • [] Low Kah Hui     (Researcher)



Meaning / Definition

 Anaemia is usually defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells hemoglobin  in the blood. It can also be defined as a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.



Causes and Effects

Causes of Anaemia

Iron deficiency anemia: The bone marrow needs iron to make red blood cells. Iron plays an important role in the proper structure of the hemoglobin molecule. If iron intake is limited or inadequate due to poor dietary intake, anemia may occur as a result. This is called iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia can also occur when there are stomach ulcers or other sources of slow, chronic bleeding. In these kinds of scenarios, because of ongoing, chronic slow blood loss, iron is also lost from the body (as a part of blood) at a higher rate than normal and can result in iron deficiency anaemia.

Anemia of chronic disease: Any long-term medical condition can lead to anemia. The exact mechanism of this process in unknown, but any long-standing and ongoing medical condition such as a chronic infection or a cancer may cause this type of anaemia.

Effects of Anaemia


Sometimes people with anaemia don’t notice any adverse effects. If your anemia is mild enough, it may not cause any symptoms or the symptoms may appear so minor they are hard to notice. However, if your anemia gets worse, you may begin to experience symptoms. Keep your eye out for these:

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Pale skin
  • Shortness of breath
  • A fast or irregular heartbeat
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Cognitive difficulties
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Headache

It can sometimes be difficult to tell if a symptom you are experiencing is caused by anemia or something else. For example, lack of sleep can often result in fatigue and cognitive difficulties, both of which are known symptoms of anaemia. Anaemia does carry the risk of serious complications, especially if it becomes severe. This is why it’s important to monitor your symptoms and be mindful if they should change (or suddenly appear).


Signs and Symptoms

As the body becomes more deficient in iron, the signs and symptoms such as extreme fatigue , chest pain, headache and frequent infections worsens as well as anaemia.     

Prevention and Treatment

Choose a vitamin-rich diet

Many types of anaemia can't be prevented. However, you can help avoid iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin deficiency anaemias by choosing a diet that includes a variety of vitamins and nutrients, including:

  • Iron. Iron-rich foods include beef and other meats, beans, lentils, iron-fortified cereals, dark green leafy vegetables, and dried fruit.
  • Vitamin B-12. This vitamin is found naturally in meat and dairy products. It's also added to some cereals and soy products, such as soy milk.
  • Vitamin C. Foods containing vitamin C — such as citrus fruits, melons and berries — help increase iron absorption.

Treatment of Anaemia 

Iron deficiency anemia. This form of anaemia is treated with changes in your diet and iron supplements.

If the underlying cause of iron deficiency is loss of blood — other than from menstruation — the source of the bleeding must be located and stopped. This may involve surgery.

  • Vitamin deficiency anemias. Folic acid and vitamin C deficiency anemias are treated with dietary supplements and increasing these nutrients in your diet. If your digestive system has trouble absorbing vitamin B-12 from the food you eat, you may receive vitamin B-12 injections.
  • Anemia of chronic disease. There's no specific treatment for this type of anemia. Doctors focus on treating the underlying disease. If symptoms become severe, a blood transfusion or injections of synthetic erythropoietin, a hormone normally produced by your kidneys, may help stimulate red blood cell production and ease fatigue





Link to Other Illnesses or Diseases

In this section, while using a little medical jargon as possible, include a description of the illness(es) or disease(s) that may occur as a result of having this disorder or disease. 

You may include picture(s) or video(s) to illustrate your points.


Kidney FailureKidney Failure

Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)



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WebMD (http://www.webmd.com/)


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