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2014 1E3 Group 7 - Osteoporosis

Page history last edited by 2014class1e3group7 6 years, 8 months ago

Team members


Names / Roles:


Hanis         (Leader)

Anggun     (Editor)

Amiro        (Researcher)

Anusha      (Researcher)







Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density which can lead to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture deteriorates, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone are altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a bone mineral density of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean peak bone mass (average of young, healthy adults) as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; the term "established osteoporosis" includes the presence of a fragility fracture. The disease may be classified as primary type 1, primary type 2, or secondary. The form of osteoporosis most common in woman after menopause is referred to as primary type 1 or postmenopausal osteoporosis. Primary 2 osteoporosis or senile osteoporosis occurs after age 75 and is seen in both females and males at a ratio of 2:1. Secondary osteoporosis may arise at any age and affect men and woman equally. This form results from chronic predisposing medical problems or disease, or prolonged use of medications such as glucocorticoids, when the disease is called steroid- or glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.  

Causes and Effects


What Causes Osteoarthritis? There are several factors that play a role in the development of the osteoarthritis. These include: Genetic factors Family history Being overweight Joint Injuries Work and leisure factors (repetitive occupational trauma) Frequent squatting or kneeling Jobs that involved heavy lifting Climbing stairs Strenuous exercise (Marathon runners, however, have a relatively low rate of osteoarthritis in general. Some scientists speculate that running enhances cartilages health) Bone infection Joint shape (such as mismatched surfaces on the joints, legs of unequal length or skewed feet. The  long term effects of osteoporosis vary between patients, but the most common effect is a bone fracture after even a relatively minor accident. Further complications can arise from the healing process, as well as from the loss of mobility that often occurs after a spine or hip.






Signs and Symptoms


Osteoporosis itself has no symptoms; its main consequence is the increased risk of bone fractures. Osteoporotic fractures occur in situations where healthy people would not normally break a bone; they are therefore regarded as fragility fractures. Typical fragility fractures occur in vertebral column, rib, hip and wrist.





Fractures are the most dangerous aspect of osteoporosis. Debilitating acute and chronic pain in the elderly is often attributed to fractures from osteoporosis and can lead to further disability and early mortality. These fractures may also be asymptomatic. The most common osteoporotic fractures are of the wrist, spine, shoulder and hip. The symptoms of a vertebral collapse ("compression fracture") are sudden back pain, often with radicular pain (shooting pain due to nerve root compression) and rarely with spinal cord compression or cauda equine syndrome. Multiple vertebral fractures lead to a stooped posture, loss of height, and chronic pain with resultant reduction in mobility.


Fractures of the long bones acutely impair mobility and may require surgery. Hip fracture, in particular, usually requires prompt surgery, as serious risks are associated with it, such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and increased mortality.


Fracture risk calculators assess the risk of fracture based upon several criteria, including BMD, age, smoking, alcohol usage, weight and gender. Recognized calculators include FRAX and Dubbo.

Osteoporosis is an age-related disorder that causes

the gradual loss of bone density and strength. When

the thoracic vertebrae are affected, there can be a gradual

collapse of the vertebrae, This results in kyphosis, an

excessive curvature of the thoracic region.

Illustration depicting normal standing posture and osteoporosis.


Falls Risk


The increased risk of falling associated with aging leads to fractures of the wrist, spin, and hip. The risk of falling, in turn, is increased by impaired eyesight due to any cause (e.g. glaucoma, macular degeneration), balance disorder, movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease), dementia, and sarcopenia (age-related loss of skeletal muscle). Collapse (transient loss of postural tone with or without loss of consciousness) leads to a significant risk of falls; causes of syncope are manifold, but may include cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heart beat), vasovagal syncope, orthostatic hypotension (abnormal drop in blood pressure on standing up). and seizures. Removal of obstacles and loose carpets in the living environment may substantially reduce falls. Those with previous falls, as well as those with gait or balance disorders, are most at risk.



Prevention and Treatment


Adequate amounts of calcium , Adequate amounts of vitamin D and regular exercise is the prevention for osteoporosis.

Although there is no cure for osteoporosis, it is largely treatable. Medical treatments for osteoporosis usually focus on slowing down or stopping the mineral loss.

There are a variety of medicines used for osteoporosis available today. What you are prescribed will depend on a variety of factors and should be discussed with your healthcare professional. Common osteoporosis medications include the following:

  • Bisphosphonates. This is the most commonly prescribed class of drug, e.g. alendronate, zoledronate
  • Strontium ranelate
  • Raloxifene
  • Denosumab
  • Parathyroid hormone (Teriparatide)
  • Calcium and vitamin D





Link to Other Illnesses or Diseases



Vitamin D Deficiency


Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets, cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe asthma in children and cognitive.

There are two forms of vitamin D, known as D2 and D3. Vitamin D2, also known as ergocalciferol, comes from fortified foods, plant foods, and supplements. Vitamin D3, also known as cholecalciferol, comes from fortified foods, animal foods (fish, eggs, and liver), and can be made internally when your skin is exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. This means that it is stored in our fat cells for use when it is needed. It is constantly being used for calcium metabolism and bone remodeling.



Lower back pain


There are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae.

The low back, or lumbar area, serves a number of important functions for the human body. These functions include structural support, movement, and protection of certain body tissues.

When we stand, the lower back is functioning to support the weight of the upper body. When we bend, extend, or rotate at the waist, the lower back is involved in the movement. Therefore, injury to the structures important for weight bearing, such as the bony spine, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, often can be detected when the body is standing erect or used in various movements.

Common causes of low back pain (lumbar backache) include lumbar strain, nerve irritation, lumbar radiculopathy, bony encroachment, and conditions of the bone and joints. Each of these is reviewed below.





Menopause is the time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop, also called the "change of life." Menopause.

  • The process of menopause does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradual process. This so-called perimenopausal transition period is a different experience for each woman.
  • The average age of menopause is 51 years old, but menopause may occur as early as the 30s or as late as the 60s. There is no reliable lab test to predict when a woman will experience menopause.
  • The age at which a woman starts having menstrual periods is not related to the age of menopause onset.
  • Symptoms of menopause can include abnormal vaginal bleeding, hot flashes, vaginal and urinary symptoms, and mood changes.
  • Complications that women may develop after menopause include osteoporosis and heart disease



Broken foot


There are several bones in the foot, and these bones can be broken (fractured) in a variety of ways. Falling from heights,... The cause of injury may be obvious, such as jumping from a height or a heavy object falling and landing on the foot, or it may develop gradually over time, such as the result of the constant stress of walking or running.

  • Fractures of the calcaneus (heel bone) usually occur when a person jumps or falls from a height, landing directly on their feet. The force of the landing may also be transmitted up the body to cause fractures of the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar spine.
  • Injuries to the midfoot, the metatarsals, and phalanges often are caused by a direct blow sustained when a kick goes awry or from a crush injury when a heavy object is dropped on the foot.





Osteopenia is a bone condition characterized by bone loss that is not as severe as in osteoporosis. Bone fracture is the typical 

In this section, include the links of all websites you obtained information from to complete your health science wiki page.

Osteopenia is a bone condition characterized by a decreased density of bone, which leads to bone weakening and an increased risk of breaking a bone (fracture). Osteopenia and osteoporosis are related conditions. The difference between osteopenia and osteoporosis is that in osteopenia the bone loss is not as severe as in osteoporosis. That means someone with osteopenia is more likely to fracture a bone than someone with a normal bone density but is less likely to fracture a bone than someone with osteoporosis. Osteopenia is decreased bone density but not to the extent of osteoporosis. This decreased bone density leads to bone fragility and an increased chance of breaking a bone (fracture).





Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osteoporosis)


Comments (1)

tan_wei_zhi@moe.edu.sg said

at 7:25 am on Jul 4, 2014

Good job in putting up the information!

Some suggestions:
1. Do use a consistent font size or type in all sections.
2. Do make reference to your pictures in your information, like what do the pictures explain.
3. Do have more references as wikipedia is not necessarily reliable.

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