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1E3_2011 Group 1 - African Savannah

Page history last edited by 1E3 GROUP 1 11 years, 10 months ago

Team Members

 

Names / Roles:

  • Maizurah  (Leader)
  • Juen Woo (Wiki Writer)
  • Unica       (Researcher)
  • Joel         (Researcher)  

  

Overview

In this section, it will provide a brief description of the ecosystem of African Savannah:

  • The African Savannahs are located in many places in Africa. It include the south of the desert place and the north of the rain forest area. Savannahs support life in western Africa, central Africa, eastern Africa and parts of the southern Africa because there are stretches of rain forest all across the continent.
  • The temperature is always warm, but the rainy wet season is followed at least 5 months of drought. 
  • There is an estimated of 45 species of animals, 500 species of birds, and 55 species of trees living within the African Savannah.

 

The following are images of the African Savannah: 

Mammals                                                            Birds                                                                 Trees

 


Physical Factors

The physical factors of African Savannah are as followed:

 

1. Light

In African Savannah, there is an abundance of light available. Due to the large area of land, the trees are widely spaced as such that the canopy of the trees do not cover the sunlight from reaching to the ground. Besides, the average length of day in African Savannah is an estimated of 11.5 to 13 hours.

 

*Above is an image of the amount of light available in African Savannah

 

2. Temperature

Savannahs have warm temperature year round ranging from 27 degrees Celcius to 30 degrees Celcius. There are actually two very different seasons in a savannah, one is a very long dry season which is during winter and the other is a very wet season during summer. In the dry season only an average of about 26 cm of rain falls. Between December and February no rain will fall at all. Oddly enough, it is actually a little cooler during this dry season. But don't expect sweater weather; it is still around 21 degrees Celcius. In the summer there is lots of rain. In Africa the monsoon rains begin in May. An average of 97 to 161 cm of rain falls during this time. It gets hot and very humid during the rainy season. Every day the hot, humid air rises off the ground and collides with cooler air above and turns into rain. In the afternoons on the summer savannah the rains pour down for hours.

 

3. Water

 

African Savannah have a scarce supply of water during the dry season. During dry season, birds and animals would migrate in a bid to source for supplies of water. Besides, plants have to adapt and store water in order to survive during the dry season. However, during the wet season and a period after the wet season is over, African Savannah has adequate supply of water as mini water catchment areas would be able to store water.

 

4. Air

  

The air of African Savannah is polluted by exhaust and fumes. The air there is also dry, which also means that the amount of water vapour is very little. This may be due to the high temperatures experienced there. 

 

5. Salinity

 

In African Savannah, water are drinkable. Animals go to small water catchment areas found in the savannah to drink the water.

 

6. Mineral Salts And Nutrients

 

 

 

The soil there has very low nutrients and mineral salts quantity. The soil is very hard and some are full of cracks due to the lack of water supply. This results in the low amount of nutrients and mineral salts present in the soil. However there is more nutrients found in a deeper depth in the soil that allows the long roots of the trees found there to penetrate the depth to take in the minerals and nutrients.

 

7. pH of the environment

 

 

Because of the fact that rain seldom falls on the savannah, the pH level of the environment in Africa Savannah is very slightly acidic. This is because normal rain is slightly acidic in pH ranging around pH5.3-pH6.0 . Therefore since the hydrological cycle have been going on, the pH level is only slightly acidic. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 

Classification of Living Organisms

The following is the classification of living organisms in African Savannah:

  

1. Producers

  • Trees - Trees in the African Savannah is one of the primary producers. It is fed upon by animals such as giraffes and elephants in the ecosystem.

     

 

  • Shrubs - A shrub is relatively similar to a bush. It is distinguished from a tree due to its shorter height of 5 to 6 metres as well as multiple stems. Shrubs are usually fed upon by animals such as zebras. 

       

  

2. Primary Consumers 

  • The zebras & elephants - zebras and elephants are herbivores within the ecosystem of African Savannah. Both species consume leaves from shrubs and trees for survival.

       

  

3. Secondary Consumers

  • The cheetah and hyena - The cheetahs and hyenas are carnivores within the ecosystem of African Savannah
  • Cheetah is part of the cat family that is blessed with speed. A cheetah is able to reach a maximum speed of 112 to 120 km/h and is able to accelerate from 0 to over 100 km/h within three seconds. Cheetah hunts its prey through their vision instead of the scent of their prey. Cheetahs usually hunt individually.
  • Hyena is a nocturnal animal which usually hunts at night. Hyena usually hunts in pack and make use of their vocal abilities to distract their prey.

     

   

4. Tertiary Consumers

  • The termites and vultures - Termites live in colonies and usually feeds on dead plant material such as wood. Besides, the colonies work together to maintain their nest which is made up of a combination of soil, mud, saliva and faeces. Vultures on the other hand, usually prey on injured animals.

     

 

5. Decomposers

  • The fungi, dung beatles and bacteria

     


Food Web 


The following are food webs in the African Savannah ecosystem:

 

Words representation:

 

 

Image Representation:

 

 


Interrelationship in Ecosystem

The following are relationships in the African Savannah ecosystem:

 

1. Predator-prey Relationship

Definition:

The predator and prey relationship is a relation that evolve around 2 or more animals or living things. In this relationship, the prey would be fed by the predator as a source of food.

 

  • Predator (Cheetah) - Prey (Zebra)

      

 

Explanation:

From the example of Cheetah and Zebra, the Cheetah (Predator) feeds on the Zebra (Prey) as a source of food. Through the process of consuming Zebra as a source of food, it results in a predator and prey relationship.     

 

2. Parasitism Relationship    

Definition:

A parsitism relation is a relation in which one organism, the parasite, lives off another organism, the host, casuing harm to it leading to a possible death. The parasite lives on or in the body of the host.

 

  • Acacia Trees - African Termite 

        

 

Explanation:

From the example of Acacia trees and African termite, the termites (parasites) lives inside of the tree (host) and consuming all the essential nutrients of the tree and killing the tree from inside.

 

3. Mutualism Relationship

Definition:

Mutualism is a positive reciprocal relationship between two organisms within an ecosystem. Through the mutualism relationship both organisms, it enhances their survival, growth or fitness. To a certain extent the relationship is more a reciprocal exploitation rather than a cooperative effort on the part of the individuals involved.

 

  • African Ant - Acacia Trees

       

* Please view video from 0.57s to 1.09s for African Ant and Acacia Tree mutualism relationship. 

 

Explanation:

From the example of African ants and Acacia trees, the relationship occurs as the ants feeds on the sweet secretion from the trees while the ants protects the treesfrom herbivors by releasing a nasty odor or physically attacking the herbivore. 


Useful Links

Plagarism is a strongly discouraged.

 

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Termite

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheetah

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyena

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vultures

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrubs

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savanna

Yahoo http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080331160650AAxmDNB 

Blue planet biomes http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/african_savanna.htm

Google Images http://www.google.com.sg/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi  (Search word: cheetah, elephant, acacia trees, vultures, fungi, zebra, african savannah, termite, hyena)

Youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4iV2quoFEtY&feature=player_embedded

Youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0m7odGafpQU&feature=player_embedded

Youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVRL_MIr7Rs&feature=player_embedded

Hydrology http://www.savannas.net/botswana/ruhydro.htm

Perth Zoo http://www.perthzoo.wa.gov.au/Documents/PDF/t_AfricanSavannah07.pdf

Planet Patrol http://www.planetpatrol.info/savannah.html

Sawac http://www.sawac.co.za/articles/GrasslandFacts.htm

Necsi http://necsi.edu/projects/evolution/co-evolution/parasites/co-evolution_parasite.html

Necsi http://necsi.edu/projects/evolution/co-evolution/pred-prey/co-evolution_predator.html

Science.Jrank http://necsi.edu/projects/evolution/co-evolution/pred-prey/co-evolution_predator.html

Mutualism http://www2.mcdaniel.edu/Biology/eco/mut/mutualism.html 

Google http://www.google.com.sg/images?um=1&hl=en&rlz=1R2ADSA_enSG416&biw=963&bih=335&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=rain%2F+heavy+clouds+in+savannah&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=

Info on acid rain http://geography.about.com/od/globalproblemsandissues/a/acidrain.htm


 

 

 

 



                       



Comments (1)

Sherlyn Chew said

at 4:26 pm on Mar 17, 2011

Good job so far.. I like the pictures. BTW, your links are not updated.

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